The present study evaluated whether the roughage portion of Santa Inês sheep diets could be supplemented with different ratios of tropical kudzu as a. Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Fam. Fabacee Leguminosa rampicante originaria del Giappone, presente in tre diverse aree della Riserva Naturale. ( EL KUDZU, planta leguminosa. Wimco 3(26): 5. ; 4(31) ( EL KUDZU, tropical para forraje y conservación. Campiña Ahora (Rep.
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Intercropping corn and kudzu in a rotation system with soybean. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sowing procedures and the seed sowing rate of kudzu Pueraria phaseoloides cv. The kudzu seeds were either broadcasted over the terrain or sown in furrows in the main plots at rates, in both cases, of, and points of cultural value on the subplots.
Singly cultivated corn was considered the control treatment. Intercropping did not cause corn plant development to show any significant difference compared with that of the singly cultivated corn plants. When sown in furrows, the number and dry matter contents of the kudzu plants were higher than sowing by broadcasting. The number of plants and the dry matter of the plants increased with the number of seeds.
Prior to sowing soybean, the incidence of weeds decreased as the number of kudzu seeds at sowing increased. The intercropping of corn with kudzu benefited soybean plant population, plant height, and grain yield in comparison with the single cultivating of corn in the previous year.
Glycine maxPueraria phaseoloidesZea mays, integrated crop-livestock, no-tillage system. This low production of straw is essentially due to prolonged dry spells, which usually take place during these periods in Brazil. At the same time, the process of cultivation improves the physical and chemical properties of the soil and also increases the amount of straw needed for the no-tillage system of cultivating intercropping species.
The corn plant, because of its height, with ears at high positions, is appropriate for intercropping because these characteristics make the harvesting of the intercropped forage plants easier Alvarenga et al.
Plants of the genus Urochloa are the most used for intercropping with corn, but other forage species, such as those of tropical kudzu Pueraria phaseoloidesmay be used for the same reason. Kudzu is advantageous compared with other grasses because it is capable of fixing atmospheric N in the plant, thus improving the nutritional value of the feed consumed by livestock.
Kudzu, a member of the Fabaceae family, is a perennial kjdzu that originated from Asia. Kudzu has thin, flexible, and hairy stems that are easily rooted leguminsa touching the soil Seprotec, Kudzu is well adapted to poor and acidic soils, showing a good competition capacity when growing leguminoea to weeds. It is also well adapted to grow in shaded areas, making it a good alternative to soil cover plants in association with rubber trees and American oil palm Embrapa, ; Monteiro et al.
Cereal species and forage plant intercropping systems have consistently been found to be highly beneficial both for soil characteristics and plant yields. One of these desirable consortia is that between corn and kudzu plants. Nonetheless, the intercropping arrangement of plants of these species need to be more clearly understood with respect to, for example, sowing procedures. The broadcasting of seeds or sowing in furrows with legminosa fertilizer being side dressed is a simple technique that can easily be put into effect by the average farmer.
However, the amount of seeds to be sown is to be calculated leguminoosa consideration of each sowing modality and the seeds’ cultural value.
The present study was thus undertaken based on the assumptions that kudzu and corn intercropping is 1 not harmful to leguinosa development of the corn plant, 2 capable of reducing weed infestation, 3 capable of providing the adequate amount of straw for the subsequent sowing of soybean, and 4 capable of improving the productive performance of soybean plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sowing methods and the amount of kudzu seeds in corn intercropping on maize development, kudzu biomass and weed infestation, and the development and production of the soybean crop in rotation.
Intercropping and kuzdu effects on a corn crop legumjnosa weeds were evaluated from December to October The soybean crop in rotation with the intercropping system was evaluated from December to April Table 1 shows the data concerning the maximum and minimum temperatures, air relative humidity legumonosa precipitation during the period from December to April The experiment was set up in the field according to a randomized complete block design with four repetitions in a split-plot arrangement.
The check treatment for these sowing procedures consisted of plots in which corn was singly cultivated. The plot size was 3. The area located in each plot from which the data were collected was formed by two 6-m-long lines, totaling The distance between rows was 0. A formulated fertilizer was applied to the soil at a rate of kg ha -1 in the sowing furrows.
Before sowing, the seeds were treated with insecticides deltamethrin and pirimifos-metil, 0. For weed control, the post-emergence herbicides nicosulforon 40 g ha -1 and 2. At 22 DAS Cthe corn plants received a side-dressed dose of 75 kg ha -1 of N provided by ammonium sulfate fertilizer. Kudzu seeds were sown simultaneously with the fertilizer application according to the procedures and rates specified in this study.
The fertilizer was distributed without incorporation along a straight line with the assistance of manual equipment. To have the fertilizer incorporated into the soil as thoroughly as when distributed in the field by mechanical equipment, a superficial up kkudzu 3 cm deep row was opened in the center between two neighboring planting lines, and the fertilizer was placed in that row.
When the seeds were sown in furrows, the kudzu seeds were manually sown over the fertilizer. When broadcasted over the terrain, the kudzu seeds were manually spread between the corn rows in the corresponding plots before the fertilizer was side dressed. The height and the dry matter of the corn plants were determined 31 and 33 days after the sowing of kudzu DAS Krespectively.
Grain yield, the number of plants per plot, and the number of ears per plant and by plot were evaluated at the end of the crop cycle Lwguminosa 10, This counting was done in two 0.
Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) | Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Fam. Fabac… | Flickr
At grain harvest and at DAS K November 20,26 days before soybean sowing, the shoots of the plants were harvested from two 0. At the end of the corn crop, weeds from two 0. At DAS K November 22,that is, 28 days before soybean sowing, the weeds were visually evaluated, and the various degrees of infestation were expressed as a percentage, in which zero indicated the absence of plant cover and indicated that the area was completely covered by plants.
Fifteen days prior to and the day of soybean sowing, the weeds and fodder plants of the experimental area were desiccated using 1. Based on the results of the soil chemical analysis, the soil received a dose of kg ha -1 of the formula placed on the bottom of the furrows. Soybean seeds of the cultivar NK RR V-Max RR were sown on December 12,according to a no-tillage system at a depth of 5 cm and 45 cm between rows at a rate of Before being sown, the seeds were submitted to treatment with carbendazim and imidacloprid 0.
The experiment was set up with the same plot sowing procedure and sub-plot seed quantities arrangement that had been used in the experiment of the previous year. The five soybean rows were sown in the central part of the plot, occupying a width of 2. The herbicides glyphosate 0. At 31 DASs, the number of weeds in two randomly chosen 0. The shoot of each weed was cut off and dried in an oven to a constant weight. At 39 DAS Sthe number of soybean plants in each sub-plot was counted, and this value was used to calculate the number of plants per hectare.
At 75 DAS Sthe plant height and dry matter were determined. Grain yield and the weight of grains were determined at the end of the crop cycle. The data obtained in both phases of the experiment were submitted to an analysis of variance and the F test. To evaluate the performance of the single cultivation in comparison with sowing procedures and sowing rates, the degrees of freedom of the treatments were determined in accordance with an orthogonal contrast of interest.
The check treatment was compared with the convenient intercropping treatments. The interaction between the sowing procedure and sowing rate was not significant for any evaluated characteristics.
The sowing procedure had an effect on corn grain yield: However, the analyses of the orthogonal contrasts showed that the corn yield when kudzu had been sown in furrows 8.
The higher yield observed when the kudzu seeds were broadcasted might be due to the lower kudzu plant number, which represented a lesser degree of competition for the natural resources needed by the corn plants to grow and produce.
Intercropping corn and kudzu in a rotation system with soybean
The further evaluated characteristics kudzzu the corn plant height, shoot dry matter, plant population and number of ears per plant and per plot were not affected by the isolated factors.
Based on the contrast analyses, the treatments of intercropping with broadcast sowing and sowing in furrows did not differ from the control monoculture of corn.
Borghi and Crusciolstudying in corn plant rows 0. They observed that the corn yield was significantly legumibosa only when the spacing between corn rows was 0. Merrand crotalaria Crotalaria spectabilisRothobserved no significant effect on corn yield in the first year, but in the second year, the corn yield was significantly higher when the intercropping had been with jack bean.
This result was probably due to the higher green matter produced by jack beans in the first year, which resulted in higher levels of available nutrients in the soil for the second-year corn plants. The sowing kurzu had a significant effect on the numbers of plants at 32 and 86 days after kudzu sowing DAS K and on the kudzu shoot dry matter yield at 86 DAS K Table 3.
At 32 and 86 DAS Kthere was greater number of kudzu plants on the furrows of the sowing treatment; consequently, at 86 DAS Kthe plants of this treatment accumulated more shoot dry matter. The number of plants at 32 and 86 DAS K and the shoot dry matter at 86 and DAS K increased linearly with an increase in the quantity of kudzu seeds sown in the plots Figures 1 and 2.
These findings showed that sowing points of cultural value PCV of kudzu seeds led to an increase in the density and biomass accumulation. In both sowing procedures, the amount of sown seeds was PCV.
Kudzu (Pueraria lobata)
The procedure by which the U. The dry matter of weeds was not significantly affected by the studied treatments. However, the degree of weed infestation DAS K was significantly influenced by the sowing rate Figure 3. The orthogonal contrasting of the treatments showed that the intercropping treatments did not differ from the treatment in which corn was singly cultivated.
The observations made at DAS K showed a linear reduction in weed infestation as the kudzu seed sowing rate increased Figure 3. This result is probably a consequence of the fact that the higher the sowing rate is, the faster and better the soil is covered by kudzu plants, which are thus rendered more capable of suppressing the growth of the weeds. Results reported by Heinrichs et al.
Nevertheless, when the intercropping was with dwarf mucuna Mucuna deeringianapigeon pea Cajanus cajan and crotalaria Crotalaria spectabilisthe authors observed no such effect. But, Linhares et al. In the soybean crop, the kudzu sowing procedure in rotation with the corn-kudzu intercropping had a significant effect on the number of weeds Table 4. When the kudzu was broadcasted, the number of weeds was The soybean plants, while in rotation with the corn-kudzu intercropping, had their population, height, and grain yield significantly affected by the kudzu seed sowing rate Figure 4.
The soybean plant population and grain yield increased linearly with the increase of the sowing rate. For plant height, the best fitting was verified to be the polynomial, with the lowest mean resulting from the use of kudzu sown at a rate of points of cultural value. The analysis by contrast showed that the soybean plants growing in plots in which the previous crop was singly cultivated corn had a lower dry matter content than those grown in plots in which the corn had previously been intercropped with kudzu sown by broadcasting.
The corn and kudzu intercropping, independently of the sowing procedure and of the sowing rate, benefitted the plant population and the height and grain yield of soybean in the first year of the experiment compared with the maize monoculture control plot.
However, when grain yield of soybean plants growing in rotation with U. Correia and Durigan reported that the rotation of soybean with U. Tanzania resulted in heavier grains determined by the weight of grains and higher grain yield. The intercropping of corn with kudzu sown either in furrows or by broadcasting has no negative effect on corn plant performance.