Esse interesse é usualmente apresentado como um novo desenvolvimento na teoria antropológica e os seus possíveis antecedentes, como o difusionismo e a . Afora o fato de vir a confirmar que os antropólogos preferem fazer prosa sem . e nas interconexões concretas, quase como uma retomada do difusionismo. Antropología Difusionista. Diego Cubillos; 3 videos; 43 views; Last updated on Mar 31, Play all. Share. Loading Save.
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Contemporary anthropology has developed a consistent interest in the study of modes of circulation of people, objects and ideas associated with current cultural globalization. This interest is usually presented as a new development in anthropological theory and its possible predecessors, such as diffusionism and acculturation theory, dismissed as irrelevant.
Focusing on the works of Melville Herskovits and Roger Bastide, this article argues for a less biased imaged of acculturation theory and stresses the ways in which some of its achievements can inspire current approaches to cultural globalization. This interest is expressed in the recent development of the anthropology of globalization as an important sub-disciplinary field. But it is also reflected in a renewed interest in processes of creolization, hybridization and syncretism, which are an important part of globalization.
In both cases, albeit in different terms, the study of flows of people and cultural forms has become a highly visible feature of contemporary anthropology. Others are more remote. Diffusionism, which was a major anthropological paradigm in Germany, the US and Great Britain from the s to the s, is a case in point.
Acculturation theory is another one. Its influence in anthropological studies outside of the US, especially in Brazil, was also of great importance. Henrika Kuklickin her book on the history of British social anthropology, for instance, hardly mentions the influence of diffusionism in W.
And even antropollgia diffusionist affiliation of Boas, as Brad Evans has convincingly argued, has dofusionismo downplayed in the history of North American anthropology. Antropo,ogia this disciplinary amnesia, the possible contributions of diffusionism and acculturation theory to the anthropological understanding of global flows of people and culture have been often ignored or, in some cases, dismissed as irrelevant to the globalist agenda.
In the case of diffusionism, Ulf HannerzArnd Schneider and Hans Hahnfor example, have antropoloia the shared concerns of diffusionists and globalists. I will basically concentrate on two authors who played an important role in the development of acculturation theory: Melville Herskovits and Roger Bastide.
Herskovits can be seen as the most important author in the thematization of acculturation theory, which he viewed as a modernist update of early diffusionism. As to the globalists, I will antropologi not only to authors who explicitly address issues of cultural globalization, but also to authors who, notwithstanding the lack of explicit references to globalization, deal with issues related to cultural history and to the contemporary movement of people and cultures.
As I will argue in more detail, the fact that acculturation theory may difusionimso some interesting clues for current anthropological challenges does not mean that new analytical tools are not required if a more complex understanding of the current predicaments of globalization is to be achieved.
The second part of the paper proposes some examples of what could be some of the concerns of an anthropology dedicated to the study of contemporary flows of people and culture. At the same time, some central aspects of diffusionism were also being actively refashioned, in order to meet some of its perceived fragilities and to address new challenges.
Contextualização da disciplina Antropologia e cultura brasileira – ENGENHARIA
While first generation diffusionists were mostly interested in contact between different Native-American cultures, acculturation theorists privileged the cultural consequences of Westernization among Native-American cultures and later among African cultures in the New World.
Acculturation theorists were thus able to circumvent one of the chief accusations against classical diffusionism. Their view of diffusion was a processual one, more interested in history in the making than in history as a narrative of things past. Moving from diffusion to acculturation also meant an accrued attention to context, or to put it otherwise, from the externalities dfiusionismo the cultural circulation of isolated traits to the internal processes of reaction antroploogia foreign cultural influences.
Difusoinismo theorists were thus able to attune diffusionism with modernist anthropology and its emphasis on synchronic cultural wholeness. Acculturation theory can be viewed in similar terms — as a modernist update of early diffusionism theory, developed in response to its perceived inadequacies.
“The past is a foreign country”? Acculturation theory and the anthropology of globalization
The sources of these concerns were diverse. The dialogue between the two anthropologists was rather ambivalent. On the one hand Bastide was eager to stress the differences between him and Herskovits: On the other hand and despite his vocal criticisms of Herskovits, some central difusiknismo developed by Bastide — regarding for example the different degrees of acculturation of Afro-Brazilian religions — were clearly influenced by Herskovits.
The specific contexts in which these phenomena have been explored also share some anteopologia. But religion and ritual continue to play an important antropoologia on the globalist agenda, as shown by the increasing number of re-visits of African-American religions or the growing body of literature on neo-Pentecostalism and charismatic Catholicism on the American continent and elsewhere. They antropklogia also extended their attention towards a antropoloiga range of cultural flows.
Herskovits has been criticized on the same grounds. The case of The Myth of the Negro Past  is well known. We have also re-introduced issues of power that acculturation theory has ignored Apter In a certain sense — as I will argue later on — we can and must be more radical towards their limitations.
However I think one should begin by emphasizing the way in which our actual interest in flows, limits and hybrids — to quote Ulf Hannerz — can benefit from more complex modes of dialogue with authors like Herskovits and Bastide. As demonstrated by several authors e. Recovering the African past would be an important difusionismk to Black cultural pride and to the combat against racial discrimination: Having previously done fieldwork in Surinam, Trinidad, Haiti and Dahomey, Herskovits could not but be aware of the extent to which African heritage had been transformed in the US.
The first point being evident, he concentrated on the latter.
Similarly, in some of the papers he wrote in the s, Herskovits was eager to admit his initial Africanist excesses: It can be argued, however, that Herskovits has paved the way for such a reassessment of the dialectics of retentions and reinterpretations in African-American cultures. In Man and His Works the chapter on cultural variation stands as a more sensitive approach to the interplay between culture and the individual than that proposed by other coeval North American authors, such as Benedict and Mead.
Neither could it be. Advocating sntropologia holistic approach to reality, modernist anthropology was by definition indifferent to the actual interplays between cultural patterns or social structures and individual inventiveness. Acculturation theory — at least in its Herskovitsian fashion — was no exception. As Sally Price has put it: On the one hand, as we have seen, the empowerment of African-Americans was the driving force behind his research. On the other hand, although his treatment of issues of power was not extensive, he was not completely indifferent to them.
On the contrary, in some of his writings, power is an important part of the argument. Power is certainly not the structuring element of his analysis but it is not fair to ignore these and other instances where dominance and resistance were addressed by Herskovits. On the contrary, Bastide viewed Africanisms in the New World as an expression of African resistance to Western physical and symbolic violence:.
IV — is also indicative of the importance that Bastide attributed to the political dimension of Afro-Brazilian Religions. Bunzl ; Bashcow ; Rosenblatt They do not contest that new issues have been added to the classical agenda of culture. But they stress the fact that a more attentive reading of the classics shows how some of the concerns underlying post-modern re-formulations of culture were not absent from such different authors as Boas, Benedict or Sapir.
In the same vein, Michel-Rolph Trouillot has remarked that contemporary anthropology has adopted a biased view of its past. The approach I am advocating is similar. We difusionissmo reframe the terms of our dialogue with acculturation theory. Before stressing too hastily our divergences, we should return to the original texts and probe into how the classical authors have dealt with the issues antropopogia are now addressing.
Consider for instance the recent calls for multi-sited fieldwork. This is something usually presented as a novel way of doing fieldwork. It is interesting to note that the novelty of this research tool is after all not as absolute as Marcus initially puts it. These alternative models of ethnography stem from extensive survey, which, as George Stockinghas shown, has been a neglected step in the history of the invention of classical Malinowskian fieldwork.
Being the dominant mode of ethnographical research among early diffusionists, extensive survey antroppologia a problem: Acculturation theorists tried to build new ways of reconciling this emphasis on circulation and the demand for thick observation.
The whole research history of Herskovits, who difusionisko fieldwork in Surinam, Trinidad, Haiti, Dahomey and Brazil, always looking at the same problems, can be seen as an example of an old and more demanding version of multi-sited fieldwork. I will give three examples. From an earlier assimilationist view of acculturation, Herskovits moved to a far more elaborated view of the forms and outcomes of the processes of contact between cultures, in which concepts like convergence, retention, syncretism, reinterpretation and counter-acculturation played a prominent role.
Although Herskovits — like most diffusionists — did stress diffusion as the major mechanism of human history, he did not difusionjsmo out the idea that in some cases similarities between cultural items might derive from independent invention.
As to counter-acculturation, Herskovits viewed it as a variant — based on the refusal of external influences — of acculturation. One of the main goals of Herskovits was to explain why some aspects of African cultures in the New World were more resilient than others.
The concept of cultural focus was central to his analysis. In The Myth of the Negro Pastfor instance, Herskovits stressed the cultural tenacity of motor habits in a way that recalls our contemporary concerns with habitus and embodiment : In the same vein, his approach to religious syncretism in the New World was not so much interested in singling out equivalences between isolated elements as in stressing the continuity of world views.
He also regarded acculturation as a kind of technique for the social advancement of Brazilian Black population:.
Difusionismo by Rafael Morais on Prezi
On the one hand, he defended that in order to understand the development of Afro-Brazilian religions one ought to admit the antropokogia autonomy of the social and cultural. This was the reason why related religious antfopologia could have developed in social contexts so different as Africa and Brazil: Current discussions on the concepts of globalization and localization Difusionosmoappropriation Schneider ; Hahnre-territorialization Inda and Rosaldo or friction Tsingwhile introducing new variables, such as transnationalism or the market, share the same concern towards reinterpretation already present in acculturation theory.
In a similar way, the current interest in processes of de-syncretization and anti-syncretism, despite Shaw and Stewart claims to the contrary, can be viewed as a revival of the strong interest in counter-acculturation showed by several North American diffusionists in their studies of Native-American sun and ghost dances Herskovits As to convergence, as Christoph Antropologka has suggested, it could provide a corrective to our contemporary dependence on the metaphors of circulation as the exclusive way of addressing cultural creativity and change.
It might be that some processes that we think as linked to the contacts of cultures in the conditions of late globalization turn out to be, at a closer look, convergent developments producing apparently similar results.
These are often interpreted, as Aisha Kahn has stressed, as free-floating devices associated with the aesthetics of the global vs. Not only hybridity is socially produced, but it also reflects the unequal distribution of power between distinct social groups and, most importantly, some of its outcomes — such as syncretic religious cults — are essential in the production of new social configurations.
This last point should be stressed. That is not my argument. What I am saying is that we should have a more complex dialogue with acculturation theorists, based on a fair identification of what we can learn from them and what we have to discover by ourselves.
Instead of focusing on sometimes imaginary divergences we should concentrate on differences that make a difference. Some anthropologists and historians have been actively involved in the identification of such differences within the African-American field of research e. But here I will be more interested in some differences which are relevant to the wider globalist agenda.
Even if we adopt a conservative position on that issue, we must recognize that contemporary globalization has not only multiplied and intensified the flows of people, culture and values, but it is also linked to the rise of unprecedented and novel kind of flows.
In this sense, one of the tasks that the anthropology of cultural globalization has to face is the empirical and theoretical upgrading of previous approaches to phenomena of cultural dynamics.
This is an ongoing process. Tourism is of course strongly associated with particular forms of contacts of culture that acculturation theorists used to study under the heading of acculturation and that we now study under such diverse headings as hybridization, creolization, etc.
But certain increasingly popular forms of tourism are also connected to forms of cultural contact based on the scenic preservation or reinvention of untouched authenticity. Indeed, ethnological safaris, folklore performances directed towards a tourist audience, some forms of rural tourism, antropologiaa based on the promise of a cultural contact with unspoiled otherness.