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Chinnaswami Subramania Bharatialso known as Bharathiyar 11 December — 11 Septemberwas a Tamil writer, poet, journalist, Indian independence activist and a social reformer from Tamil Nadu. Popularly known as “Mahakavi Bharati”, he was a pioneer of modern Tamil poetry and is considered one of the greatest Tamil literary figures of all time.
His numerous works included fiery songs kindling patriotism during the Indian Independence movement. Born in Ettayapuram of Tirunelveli district present day Thoothukudi inBharati had his early education in Tirunelveli and Varanasi and worked as a journalist with many newspapers, including The HinduBala Bharata, Vijaya, Chakravarthini, the Swadesamitran and India.
Inan arrest warrant was issued against Bharati by the government of British India for his revolutionary writings, forcing him to flee to Pondicherry citywhere he lived until Bharati’s influence on Tamil literature is phenomenal.
He was prolific in his output. He covered political, social and spiritual themes. The songs and poems composed by Bharati are very often used in Tamil cinema and have become staples in the literary and musical repertoire of Tamil artistes throughout the world. He paved the way for modern blank verse.
Subbaiah, as he was named, went to the M. Hindu College in Tirunelveli. From a very young age, he was musically and poetically inclined. Around the age of 11, he was conferred the title of “Bharati”, the one blessed by Saraswatithe goddess of learning.
Bharati lost his mother at the age of five and his father at the age of sixteen. When he was 15, he married Chellamma who was seven years old. He was brought up by his father who wanted him to learn English, excel in arithmetic, and become an engineer.
During his stay in VaranasiBharati was exposed to Hindu spirituality and nationalism. This broadened his outlook and he learned Sanskrit, Hindi and English. In addition, he changed his outward appearance. He also grew a beard and wore a turban due to his admiration of Sikhs, influenced by his Sikh friend.
Though he passed an entrance exam for a job, he returned to Ettayapuram during and started as the court poet of Raja of Ettayapuram for a couple of years. Bharati joined as Assistant Editor of the Swadeshamitrana Tamil daily in On his journey back home, he met Sister NiveditaSwami Vivekananda ‘s spiritual heir.
She inspired Bharati to recognise the privileges of women and the emancipation of women exercised Bharati’s mind. He visualised the new woman as an emanation of Shakti, a willing helpmate of man to build a new earth through co-operative endeavour. Among other greats such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak, he considered Nivedita as his Guruand penned verses in her praise.
These newspapers were also a means of expressing Bharati’s creativity, which began to peak during this period. Bharati started to publish his poems regularly in these editions. From hymns to nationalistic writings, from contemplations on the relationship between God and Man to songs on the Russian and French revolutions, Bharati’s subjects were diverse. Bharati participated in the historic Surat Congress in along with V. Chidambaram Pillai and Mandayam Srinivachariar, which deepened the divisions within the Indian National Congress with a section preferring armed resistance, primarily led by Tilak over moderate approach preferred by certain other sections.
Bharati supported Tilak with V. Chidambaram Pillai and Kanchi Varathachariyar. Tilak openly supported armed resistance against the British. Inthe British instituted a case against V. In the same year, the proprietor of the journal India was arrested in Madras. Faced with the prospect of arrest, Bharati escaped to Pondicherrywhich was under French rule. The British tried to suppress Bharati’s output by stopping remittances and letters to the papers. Both India and Vijaya were banned in India in During his exile, Bharati had the opportunity to meet many other leaders of the revolutionary wing of the Independence movement like AurobindoLajpat Rai and V.
Aiyar, who had also sought asylum under the French. He was imprisoned in the Central prison in Cuddalore in custody for three weeks from 20 November to 14 December and was released after the intervention of Annie Besant and C.
He was stricken by poverty during this period, resulting in his ill health. The following year,Bharati met Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He resumed editing Swadesimeitran from in Madras modern day Chennai.
He was badly affected by the imprisonments and bywhen a General Amnesty Order finally removed restrictions on his movements, Bharati was already struggling. He was struck by an elephant named Lavanya at Parthasarathy templeTriplicaneChennaiwhom he used to feed regularly.
Although he survived the incident, a few months later his health deteriorated and he died on 11 September early morning around 1 am. Though Bharati was considered a people’s poet, a great nationalist, outstanding freedom fighter and social visionary, it was recorded that there were only 14 people to attend his funeral.
He delivered his last speech at Karungalpalayam Library in Erode, which was about the topic Man is Immortal. Bharati is considered as one of the pioneers of modern Tamil literature.
Subramania Bharati – Wikipedia
He also employed novel ideas and techniques in his devotional poems. Bharati’s poetry expressed a progressive, reformist ideal. His imagery and the vigour of his verse were a forerunner to modern Tamil poetry in different aspects. He was the forerunner of a forceful kind of bharathiar that combined classical and contemporary elements.
He had a prodigious output penning thousands of verses on diverse topics like Indian Nationalism, love songs, children’s songs, songs of nature, glory of the Tamil language, and odes to prominent freedom fighters of India like TilakGandhi and Lajpat Rai. He even penned an ode to New Russia and Belgium. His insightful similes have been read by millions of Tamil readers.
He was well-versed in various languages and translated speeches of Indian National reform leaders like Aurabindo, Bala Gangadar Tilak and Swami Vivekananda. It is the opinion of some litterateurs that Bharathiar’s Panchali Sapatham, based on the story of Panchali Draupadiis also an ode to Bharat Mata. That the Pandavass are the Indians, the Kauravas the British and the Kurukshetra war of Mahabharat that of the Indian freedom struggle.
It certainly is ascribed to the rise of womanhood in society. He is known to have said, “Even if Indians are divided, they are children zathichudi one Mother, where is the need for foreigners to interfere?
He talks of building up India’s defense, her ships sailing the high seas, success in manufacturing and universal education.
He calls for sharing amongst states with wonderful imagery like bharatihyar diversion of excess water of the Bengal delta to needy regions and a bridge to Sri Lanka. Bharati also wanted to abolish starvation.
He sang, ” Thani oru manithanakku unavu illayenil intha jagaththinai azhithiduvom” translated as ” If one single man suffers from starvation, we will destroy the entire world”. Some of his poems are translated by Jayanthasri Balakrishnan in English in her blog, though not published.
Bharati is considered the first to have advocated and campaigned for women’s participation in politics. He advocated greater rights for women and their education. He visualised a modern Indian woman at the vanguard of society. He was of the strong opinion that the world will prosper in knowledge and intellect if both men and women are deemed equal.
He condemned the Shashtrasthe procedures formulated by some orthodox Hindus and weren’t held as holy by most Hindus, that suppressed women’s rights. Most of his views are considered contemporary even in modern times.
He supported feminism with the following lines in his poem — Puthumai pen. There are many such poems written by him for feminism:. The Meaning of the above poem is, people in the world will get good knowledge and prosper if both Men and women are considered as equal. Bharati also fought against the caste system in Hindu society. Although born into an orthodox Brahmin family, he considered all living beings as equal and to illustrate bharatuiyar he performed the upanayanam for a young Dalit man and made him aathichuddi Brahmin.
He also scorned the divisive tendencies being imparted into the younger generations by their elderly tutors during his time.
He openly criticised the preachers for mixing their individual thoughts while teaching the Vedas and the Gita. He strongly advocated bringing the Dalits to the Hindu mainstream. It is a sin to divide people on caste basis. The ones who are really of a superior class are the ones excelling in being just, wise, educated and loving.
Here he expresses the love between human beings, where a man should not see their caste. They should see them as human beings. Not only human beings, they should see them as their brothers and sisters. Which means a well educated person knows to treat them same and not by their caste.
The Government of India in instituted a highest National Subramanyam Bharti Award conferred along with Ministry of Human Resource Developmentannually confers on writers of outstanding works in Hindi literature. Bharathiar Universitya state university named after the poet, was established in at Coimbatore. Chidambaranar along with Subramanya Siva and Bharathiar with S.
Subbaiah starring as Subramania Bharati. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. He who forgets not God and fails not in his duty, no matter whatever befalls him and however much he suffers, will at the end attain honour and happiness.
Senthamizh naadu ennum pothinile. The new age women will learn many intellectual texts. They will set the base for many scientific discoveries that facilitate human life.
They will expunge all backward superstitions in the society.