Things the Man of the House Should Probably Never Consider

It is excellentwhenever theguyof the propertyis actuallyrelativelyhelpful, and canhang upa rackas well aspaintthecarport. Nonetheless, there are a fewdutiesaround thepropertythat, unless of coursethe individualin questionis known as arepairindividualbyvocation, which might benearly always best leftto peoplewho aretrainedandcredentialedto accomplishthe things they’re doing. Precisely what arethesecareersandimprovements? Well, first off, something thatinvolveselectricity. Youcan easily find out more here concerning themishapsthat willoccur, and yetpermit it tobe enoughto conveythat there’s areason whymanystatesrequireelectric poweredrepairstoan individual’shouse to besignedby aaccrediteddomestic electrician.

Other sorts ofpropertymaintenancethat canswiftlycause problemsexcept ifthe personproviding theimprovementsis a realspecialistare the oneswhich entailwater (pipesand alsoplumbing) as well as, garage doors. Wateris virtuallyasdetrimentalaforceas a forestfire, and evenalmost anyfixthat has to do withthe particulardirectinginvolving wateris generally bestperformed byaplumbing technician. Whileone’sgarage doormay looklikesomethingeasyfor you tofocus on, at first, such appearancescan bemisleading, and ahome’sgarage door, typicallyitsbiggestpiece ofmoving equipment, has thepotential toend up beingdeadly. Pleaseclick here for more details.

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House music is a form of electronic dance music. It originated in what one might call post-disco America. House is a relative of disco music. Some may say that house evolved from disco music. It was also influenced by soul and funk.

Frankie Knuckles was one of the founding fathers of house. He was a DJ at a club in Chicago known as The Warehouse. Some people say that house music takes its name from The Warehouse where primitive house began. Frankie Knuckles would mix disco, Philly soul, European pop, synthesized drum beats, and sound effects to make his music. Later artists would use synthesizers, samplers, sequencers, mixers, electronic drum machines, vocals, and other effects to make the first original house records.

A genre of music known as garage house also became popular around the same time in New York City. Larry Levan was a DJ at the Paradise Garage from which garage house gets it name.

I had a friend named Mark who introduced me to house during my college days in the late 1980s. Mark was from the Chicago area so it’s no surprise that he was familiar with the genre. He used to play a lot of house and other dance music. He made me a few a mix tapes, some of which were recordings of WBMX and WGCI radio programs. I had never heard anything quite like Chicago house music before.

Some of house music’s popular songs contained the word jack. Jacking was the word used by Chicago club-goers to describe the frenzied body of a dancer when dancing to the Chicago house sound. Larry Heard uses the word jack in the opening of his song “Can You Feel It?” He says, “In the beginning, there was Jack, and Jack had a groove. And, from this groove came the groove of all grooves. And, while one day viciously throwing down on his box, Jack boldly declared, “Let there be HOUSE!” and house music was born.”

Some Names Associated with House:

Frankie Knuckles

Larry Levan

Marshall Jefferson

Todd Terry

Farley “Jackmaster” Funk

Ralphi Rosario

Jesse Saunders

Tyree Cooper

Chip E.

Adonis

Steve “Silk” Hurley

Phuture

Lil’ Louis

J.M. Silk

Ron Hardy

Kevin Saunderson

Some of My Favorite House Songs:

1. Can You Feel It? – Larry Heard (a.k.a. Mr. Fingers)

2. Jack it All Night Long – Bad Boy Bill

3. Rhythem Method – Mink

4. House Nation – House Master Boyz

5. Whatever Turns You On – Mario Reyes

6. Pump Up Chicago – Mr. Lee

7. Used By DJ – MKII

8. Jack Me ’til I Scream – Julian Jumpin’ Perez

9. Can You Party? – Royal House

10. Can U Dance – Fast Eddie Smith and Kenny “Jammin” Jason

11. Can’t Stop the House – Thompson and Lenoir

12. How to Play Our Music – Reese and Santonio

13. Don’t Make Me Jack (Tonite I Wanna House You) – Paris Grey

14. Pump Up the Volume – M/A/R/R/S

Other songs I heard on WBMX or WGCI mixes that were house or dance music:

Big Fun – Inner City

Good Life – Inner City

American Soviets – C.C.C.P.

Baila – Raz

Rock This House – Mark Imperial and Dennis Ramirez

Bass Line (The Gemini Rap) – Mickey Oliver Project featuring M.C. Taste

I Want to Be Your Property (Street Latin Wolff Mix) – Blue Mercedes

I’m So Hot For You – Bobby Orlando

Birthday Suit (House Mix) – Johnny Kemp

Some different styles of house music include deep house, acid house, and ambient house.

An interesting genre related to house is hip-house. Hip-house is a blend of hip-hop and house components. Hip-house was extremely popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Some hip-house songs may include:

I’ll House You – Jungle Brothers

Pump Up the Jam – Technotronic

Groove is in the Heart – Deee Lite

Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now) – C&C Music Factory

Strike it Up – Black Box

Everybody Everybody – Black Box

The Power – Snap!

Vogue – Madonna

Yo Yo Get Funky – Fast Eddie

It Takes Two – Rob Base and DJ E-Z Rock

House continues to have a presence in contemporary times. My favorite is Chicago house from the 1980s. Trax Records and DJ International Records pressed many of the Chicago house songs onto vinyl. Some of these songs can be heard at online video websites. Compact discs can be found online and even some classic vinyl records are for sale as well.

I’m glad that my friend Mark introduced to me to house. I hope you enjoy it too.

Salvage Building Materials

One of the most recent innovations in the construction industry is the development of the “Green building,” which is the process of building structures that use environment-friendly building materials and building methods. Among the criterion that a building must meet to be considered “green” is that the house should be built using environment-friendly building materials. This is because building materials play a major role in making a structure environment-friendly. As seen in the past, using building materials such as asbestos or those that release toxins can have a detrimental effect, not only to the builders and future occupants, but to the environment as well. However, environment-friendly materials are not only limited to those that do not release toxins or pollution — recycled materials are also considered to be environment-friendly.

One very good example of recycled or salvaged building material is steel. This is because steel is 66 percent recyclable, and can be derived from scrap metal, including old automobiles, machines and old steel buildings. This means that using steel does not require e mining because it can be derived from recycled metals. In addition, precious resources such as trees are also preserved if steel is used to build structures instead of wood. Apart from being good for the environment, using steel also has other advantages. Steel is stronger and able to withstand extreme weather conditions, and it is cheaper than most building materials. It is also fire resistant, resistant to termites, rotting and cracks.

More and more people are becoming aware of environmental issues and new environment-friendly innovations are being developed. The development of alternative building materials used to build structures like homes is an example.

Basic Guidelines To Owner Home Building

Many South Africans are choosing to build their own homes instead of buying an existing property. Reasons for this vary but mostly for the cost saving (It is said that a saving of 25% can be made on the capital outlay of the proposed project when building yourself as oppose to buying), other reasons might include the great challenge of taking on a building project or the fact that it can create a great sense of self-achievement.

For a number of reasons the cost of building went up tremendously in the last couple of years. In 1998 an average house with regular finishes could be build for appx. R1800/sqm whereas at the time of writing this document (2006) the rate of building the same house would be around (R3500/sqm) This probably had a huge influence on the ‘property boom’ as perceived by South Africans in the recent years.

With the above in mind, it goes without saying that it is essential to hire a good contractor (for a list of good contractors in your area, contact the NHBRC – National home builders registration council) Also know that getting a building loan from a respectable financial institution would require you to hire a contractor who is registered with the NHBRC, a loan would not be granted otherwise.

The experience, skill, efficiency, and contacts of a seasoned professional contractor can yield dividends for years.

CHOOSING A SUITABLE STAND

Shape

Try to avoid irregular shaped plots, if possible a square or rectangular shaped plot lends itself to easier planning. Optimum shape are more or less a 4:3 ratio. If considering a pan-handle, know that the pan-handle makes up a lot of the size of the total area of the plot and that this is generally un-usable and would cost generally more to pave that a regular plot.

Slope

Generally flat sites are easiest to build on, but one might choose a sloped site as it often is accompanied by great views, but keep in mind that sloping sites, no matter how steep will often call for professional help in the planning stages.

Size

If you are planning to possibly extend the house in future make sure the site lends itself towards making this possible sensibly. It would often not make sense to extend if there is only open space on the western or cold southern side of the plot.

Orientation

North facing plots are the best in the Southern hemisphere as they get more sun, especially in the winter months when the sun is lower. Views or other advantages will influence a buyer to buy alternatively orientated sites, but never consider buying a western orientated site – you will seriously regret it afterwards.

Soil conditions

Do a proper soil investigation before buying, or ask the developer/seller to provide you with a soil test. The cost of building on un-suitable soil is surprisingly higher with the need for special excavations & foundations.

Access to site

Mull over the possible accesses to the site, this often becomes a huge headache during building and even more so in many cases once you have moved in.

BUILDING THE SUPERSTRUCTURE

Storage

Make sure your builder has a proper store for the building materials delivered to site to prevent theft and also to protect the materials from weather, especially cement should be kept free from all moist at all cost. Bags of cement could be stored on a platform lifted on bricks etc.
Don’t construct the storage hut too far from the road for easy delivery. Make sure that the proper sanitation facilities are provided as well and make arrangements to have the water connection activated.

Setting out

This process involves the marking out of the building with lime powder, corner pegs and datum level references. Once the marking out is complete, make sure to double check that the proposed building does not cross building lines or servitudes.
If you are building on a sloped site the cut & fill excavations & filling will have to be done before hand.

Excavations & Foundations

Make sure that the excavations for the foundations are level and at least 550mm deep, most local authorities require the top of the foundation to de at least 340mm (4 brick courses) deep and see that the excavated trenches are free of water before concrete casting commences. For external walls the foundations are to be a minimum of 550mm wide for cement bricks and 600mm for clay bricks for a one storey building. The foundation depth to be around 230mm min. deep. These are for normal soil conditions. If you suspect that you have special conditions ex. Silt, Clay etc. consult your engineer as you may require a special raft foundation or even piles in cases where the top layer of extreme unusable quality.
When building on a sloping site, a stepped foundation may be required. Make sure that the top foundations ends overlap sufficiently (appx. 250mm) over the bottom strip for a normal strip foundation.
For unstable soils consult your engineer for a foundation design and have him do an inspection when the foundations are cast.
(Have a look at the details section for typical foundation details on the advice page of this site, you might also want to read the article on concrete construction in South Africa)

Waterproofing & floor slab casting

Residential ground floor slabs are usually only one brick course thick (Apprx. 75mm) and are laid on a well compacted crushed stone filling covered with riversand and on a adequate damp proof membrance (The dpm is often specified as a 250micron under surface bed layer). Make sure that the layer of riversand in sufficient in thickness and that it is well spread over the layer of crushed stone to prevent penetrations through the sheet. Also check that the final unfinished floor level is at least 2 brick cources (170mm) above the natural ground level to prevent stormwater or rising damp from entering the house and as required by local authorities.
See to it that the builder is keeping the floor slabs damp to ensure proper curing and that he has ordered his building sand and cement from sound suppliers who will supply him with the correct type of cement and aggregate mix for slab casting.
When the slab is cast check your plans once again to see that all conduits or pipes etc. are in place for the sanitary fittings (wc, whb, shr, sink, etc.) and for all the electrical fittings (plug outlets etc.)

Walls (Masonry work)

Before any bricks are laid check that the top of foundation is square and level once again.
Make sure you get good quality stock/face bricks from a sound supplier. When the bricks are delivered to site inspect them and see if more than 5 out of 100 are broken, if so the bricks might not be of optimum quality.
When using cement bricks/blocks make sure the bricks are dry before being laid as shrinkage might occur afterwards if they are laid wet which might result in mortar jointing getting loose. concrete based the supplier must supply a SABS certificate of compliance.
It is good practice to wet the bricks before laying them as the dust accumulated on them might act as a barrier between the mortar & the brick, also clay bricks might absorb a lot of moisture out of the mortar mix which it needs to cure (harden).

Before building of walls commences make sure that your builder installs a layer of 250micron Plastic sheet as wide as the wall as a damp proofing similar to the sheet below the floorslab. Where there are platform differences a vertical sheet should be installed to prevent damp to the lower levels.

When the building is in progress, see that the corner profiles (wooden masts with brick courses marked of at the corners of the house) are plumb and that brickwork is laid level as building proceeds. Make sure that the lines spanned between profiles are always level and stretched tight.

Bricks should be laid with brick-reinforcing every third to 4th course, and every course above door & window level.

Door & window frames should be built in and see that they are at the correct placement and height and that they are built in level. If you are building aluminium window frames, openings will be left and the openings will be measured on site and the windows built accordingly and installed just before plastering commences.

Make sure that lintels are resting at least 150 mm on both sides of openings for openings smaller than 1,5m, or 250 mm for openings wider than that.
Bricks must be laid plumb and level, with joints of about 10mm, properly filled.
With facebricks it is important that all joints are properly filled, otherwise water will leak through these joints into the interior skin of brickwork

Cavity walls (walls consisting of two brick skins with small gap – 40-50mm usually) needs to be build at all coastal residences with weep holes at the bottom for the moisture to escape. It is also good practice to build cavity walls at the western side of the building to eliminate the heat created on the walls by the scorching western afternoon sun.
Where cavity walls are built, wall ties are to be used between the skins, at a rate of 4 ties per square metre.

Roof covering

Roof design will depend on the type of covering and the span over which the structure is built.
A timber sub-structured roof typically rests on a wooden wallplate which acts as a ‘ringbeam’ around the perimeter of the building to evenly distribute the loads to the supporting walls.

The trusses & wall plate is anchored to the walls with metal roof ties and needs to be built into the wall at least 4 brick courses from the top.

The roof trusses should be graded and treated and bear a mark of approval typically by the SABS. An engineering certificate of compliance should be supplied to you by the roof contractor.

The battens are the cross pieces of timber spaced as per roofing material used. For tiled roofs they are 38x38mm and spaced at appx. 330mm centres and 38×50 or 50×76 for sheetmetal coverings and spaced at 1,2 – 1,6m apart depending on the manufacturer.

Brandering are similar to battens but is nailed to the underside of the trusses for the ceiling to be fixed to it. They are typically 38x38mm in profile and spaced at 450mm centres. Make sure to have a trapdoor fitted in between at a suitable place. (See also trapdoor detail – at the details page of this website)

Depending on the roofing type and manufacturer roof slopes may vary from 2 degrees to very steep angles. Typically tiled roofs will not have a smaller slope that about 17 degrees and will then require an undertile waterproofing membrane (this is typically done for roofs at a pitch greater than 45 or smaller than 26 degrees and also prevents dust from entering and act against wind loads that might be forced onto the roof),
Many sheetmetal profiles can be installed at a very small slope without difficulty.

Where ever there is a protrusion through the roof eg. A ventpipe, chimney shaft, parapet wall etc. these areas should be properly flashed with galvanized sheetmetal flashings.

Depending on the style of architecture or personal preference you might install a facia board and gutter or not; however if you decide not to, it is good practise and most local authorities will require you to build an apron of 900MM min around the house perimeter to prevent the falling water from corroding the earth around the house and cause rising damp or structural failure of the weakened brickwork by the moisture.

(For thatch roof information refer to the article on thatch roof design on this website)

Construction of floors / Stairs

When constructing floors it can either be a wooden floor raised and rest of wooden floor joists (beams) and be concrete which is the preferred method because of its better insulating qualities.
For concrete ground floors see also the section regarding slab casting earlier. If you are building a wooden floor, especially at higher levels consult a qualified professional to work out the live loads which will act out on the floor.
When considering which flooring material to be used also consider the fact that a lot of services needs to run in the floor and will need to be covered from below is using wooden floor for the upper floors.

Local authorities in SA require stair treads to be no less than 250mm and risers (vertical) to be no more than 200mm. These however are minimums and a comfortable stair should have at leas 270mm treads and 170mm risers. The 170mm risers also makes it easier if a concrete stair needs to be built into a wall module as 170mm equals 2 brick courses.

Other items and services

Plumbing & sewerage, electrical installation, landscaping, Special fittings etc. will not be covered in this document. Should you have any other questions please contact us and we will do our utmost to provide you with guidance.

Metal Building for the Future of Construction

A metal building just may be in your future as a home or business owner. With the limited amount of both non-renewable and renewable resources on the planet, you might not have ever considered a metal building. They have a stereotype of being boxy, practical and utilitarian-in short, kind of unattractive. However, if you were to take a look at the way that steel is being used in construction of the buildings you use every day, you may change your mind. Metal building is used not only for the walls of structures such as airplane hangars and storage sheds; it is also being used in churches, sports arenas, roofs, and beautiful steel-framed homes among other things.

One of the main reasons that the metal building construction field is growing is that steel is a durable, easy to produce and inexpensive product. It is stronger than any other building product pound for pound. Much of the steel used in any given metal building you might see today is made from recycled material-and over 50 percent of it can be recycled again for use in another building. Therefore, metal is a “green” building material-a concept that is increasing in popularity with both builders and consumers. It has the ability to withstand some of the most damaging weather conditions as well as being fire resistant-insurance companies typically love it.

Another advantage of a metal building is that it can be manufactured and constructed with relative ease. There are many pre-fabricated buildings of every type that take limited resources to build and that can be done within a much shorter time frame than some of the other custom buildings. You can also purchase floor plans for many steel frame metal building projects as well. Whether you are looking at building an additional classroom building for your local elementary school or purchasing a steel frame 3,000 square foot home, there are some great options available for you.

Finding steel building manufacturers, or companies that manufacture and install steel roofs, etc. is as simple as looking in your yellow pages-either in the phone book or online. You can also find information about all of the steel building materials available when you go online. There are organizations and manufacturers websites where you can find out more about the advantages of building with metal along with purchasing blueprints, framing, or even an actual building. The choice is steel for the future.